Lesson 2
Topic What is the significance of Constantinople?
Objective
Explain how Byzantine Empire survived and prospered for 1,000 years.
Discuss why Constantinople was important to the empire.
Sunshine State Standards
· Benchmark Number: SS.912.W.2.5
Standard: Recognize significant events, figures, and contributions of medieval civilizations (Byzantine Empire, Western Europe, Japan).

Benchmark Description: Explain the contributions of the Byzantine Empire.
Essential Questions
· How could the Byzantine Empire survive for such a long period?
· Could the Byzantine techniques/strategies enlighten today’s growing nations?
· Where is Constantinople?
Content:

The Byzantines, however, wrote it all down -- their techniques of persuasion, intelligence gathering, strategic thinking, tactical doctrines, and operational methods.

I. Avoid war by every possible means, in all possible circumstances, but always act as if war might start at any time. Train intensively and be ready for
battle at all times.

II. Gather intelligence on the enemy and his mentality, and monitor his actions continuously.

III. Campaign vigorously, both offensively and defensively, but avoid battles, especially large-scale battles, except in very favorable circumstances.

IV. Replace the battle of attrition and occupation of countries with maneuver warfare. The object is not to destroy your enemies, because they can
become tomorrow's allies.

V. Strive to end wars successfully by recruiting allies to change the balance of power. Diplomacy is even more important during war than peace.

VI. Subversion is the cheapest path to victory. So cheap, in fact, as compared with the costs and risks of battle, that it must always be attempted, even
with the most seemingly irreconcilable enemies. Remember: Even religious fanatics can be bribed, as the Byzantines were some of the first to
discover, because zealots can be quite creative in inventing religious justifications for betraying their own cause.

VII. When diplomacy and subversion are not enough and fighting is unavoidable, use methods and tactics that exploit enemy weaknesses, avoid
consuming combat forces, and patiently whittle down the enemy's strength. This might require much time.

Materials
· Posters
· Maps
· Textbooks
· Crayons
· Markers
· Paper
Procedures:
  1. Anticipatory Set:

By a show of hands, how many of you have ever heard of Constantinople? Can anyone identify its location up on the map? Before we begin, does anyone have prior knowledge of this region? Any specific details or names? (ESOL Strategy: Linking content to previous experiences)
  1. Objective:

Tell the students that we are going to be discussing the Byzantine Empire and the significance of Constantinople. We will explore the numerous techniques and strategies that enabled it to proper for so long.
  1. Input:
I will have my class watch a short video. They will need to write down two topics from the video they find interesting or subjects they want to learn more about.
__The Byzantine Greeks 1/5__
Afterwards students will take out their textbooks and turn to the chapter they read over the weekend involving the empire. I will give a short lecture (five minutes) hitting especially on Constantinople and end by giving a hand-out containing my lesson content.
Since there are seven key points the class will be divided into seven small groups. Students will move their desks around and during the activity I will walk around the room. The students need to analyze their topic in about fifteen minutes and find specific events/wars where their topic is addressed in their textbook. As a group, they will each present their findings to the class. The entire group or a spokesperson must stand up in the front and I will use their findings for their test. So they should try to take good clear notes because it will be a vital tool for their test. (ESOL Strategy: Small Groups)
  1. Model:

Prior to the unit, I will decorate my room accordingly. I will put up posters, bring in books, and try to find pictures of Byzantine artifacts. (ESOL Strategy: Visual Aid)
  1. Check for Understanding:

Right before students leave the class, they will take out a note card and write in complete sentences their ideas/thoughts about Constantinople. Do they think its tactics helped it survive in such harsh times?
  1. Guided Practice

There might not be enough time in this class period but I will plan a day where students can create study materials. For example, pass out materials (like crayons, markers, paper) and have the students create their own study foldable. The foldable will help them analyze their information. Tell the students that if they are respectful music will be played but talking should be at a minimum.
  1. Independent Practice

Assign take home activity, in which students will then type up a one paragraph summary of today’s lesson and what they learned from it. Also what they already knew about Constantinople (prior and after the lesson).

Closure/Summary:
Referring to posters, maps, and videos review the different regions and their characteristics.
Resources:
Edward Luttwak.” __The Grand Strategy of the Byzantine Empire__.” Foreign Policy, Slate Group. Washington. 2009.__http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2009/10/19/take_me_back_to_constantinople__
Evaluation:
When asked to take a small multiple choice quiz the next day in class, the students will correctly do so with 80% accuracy.