Lesson 3
Topic Who was Justinian and his significance to the development of the empire
Objective
Describe the reign of Justinian and his wife Theodora.
Content:
Personal Aspects
· Christian emperor of the Roman Empire on the cusp between Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
· Justinian's rise to imperial power began in 527 with his appointment as co-emperor to Justin I, his uncle, who died later that same year.
Reign as Emperor
· Known for his reorganization of the government of the Roman Empire and his codification of the laws, the Codex Justinianus, in A.D. 534.
· Justinian's building projects, withi included aqueducts and bridges, monasteries, orphanages, hostels, and the Hagia Sophia, which still stands in Constantinople/Istanbul.
· He heralded extensive territorial expansion and military success
· “Justinian drew upon administrators and counselors from outside the aristocratic class. His own modest origins, along with his selection of these court members, contributed to lasting tensions with the Byzantine nobility. This situation was exacerbated by Justinian's authoritarian approach to governance, and his pronouncement that the emperor's will was law further undermined the authority of the city's senate as well as its factions.”
· Justinian sought to recover regions lost to foreign invaders, particularly __Germanic tribes__ in Italy and North Africa. He thus launched one of the most aggressive military programs in medieval history.
Religious Sphere
· “Justinian took a leading role in shaping church policy. As an adamant defender of Christian Orthodoxy, he fought to extinguish the last vestiges of Greco-Roman paganism, to root out Manichaeans and Samaritans, and to oppose competing Christian sects.”
· “The Monophysites (supported by Justinian's wife Theodora) were in conflict with the accepted doctrine from the Council of Chalcedon (A.D. 451). Justinian was unable to do anything to resolve the differences. He even alienated the pope in Rome, creating a schism. Justinian expelled teachers of paganism from the Academy in Athens, closing the schools of Athens in 529. In 564, Justinian adopted the heresy of Aphthartodocetism and tried to impose it. Before the matter was resolved, Justinian died.”

Sunshine State Standards
· Benchmark Number: SS.912.W.2.4
Standard: Recognize significant events, figures, and contributions of medieval civilizations (Byzantine Empire, Western Europe, Japan). -
Benchmark Description: Identify key figures associated with the Byzantine Empire.
Essential Questions
· Who was Justinian?
· What major contributions did he make during his reign as Emperor of Byzantine?
· Why was religion a heated topic during his era?
· Did Theodora play any key roles during her lifetime?
· How would you describe Justinian as a ruler (great, poor, nonimportant)?
Materials
· Textbook
· Posters
· Markers
· Construction Paper
· Video
· Adhesive

Procedures:
  1. Anticipatory Set:

First I will have my students watch a video and have a discussion about themes/subjects they found most interesting. The video is not long and it is an opening for our lesson.
__The Byzantine Greeks 3/5__
2. Objective:

Tell the students that we are going to learn about the Byzantine Emperor Justinian and his wife Theodora. It is vital to explain how influential their reign was to the development of the empire.
3. Input:

Afterwards students will take out their textbooks and turn to the chapter they read over the weekend involving Justinian. I will give a short lecture (five minutes) hitting especially on his reign.
Then I will divide the class into about five groups. Each group is responsible for creating a timeline of Justinian and his reign. They will pick and choose events that they believe are most significant. They do not have to have every little detail only parts that stand-out. Information they want to be considered for their tests. Students will move their desks around and during the activity I will walk around the room. The students need to analyze their topic in about five minutes and every group member needs to have a task. I will provide all the materials when they start to design. The timelines will be posted on the walls and as a group they will each present their timelines to the class. The entire group or a spokesperson must stand up in the front and I will use their findings for their test. So they should try to take good clear notes because it will be a vital tool for their test.
(ESOL Strategy: Small Groups)

4. Model:

Prior to the unit, I will decorate my room accordingly. I will put up posters, bring in books, and try to find pictures of Byzantine artifacts. It would be great if I could find some pictures of Justinian. (ESOL Strategy: Visual Aid)
5. Check for Understanding:

Right before students leave the class, they will take out a note card and write in complete sentences their ideas/thoughts about Justinian. What kind of emperor was he? Would he be a successful emperor in today’s world?


6. Guided Practice

There might not be enough time in this class period but I will plan a day where students can create study materials. For example, pass out materials (like crayons, markers, paper) and have the students create their own study foldable. The foldable will help them analyze their information. Tell the students that if they are respectful music will be played but talking should be at a minimum.
7. Independent Practice

Assign take home activity, in which students will then type up a one paragraph summary of today’s lesson and what they learned from it. They must turn it in the next day upon entering the class.
Closure/Summary:
Referring to classroom posters, pictures, and artifacts, we will quickly review the Emperor Justinian and his reign.
Resources:
__The Byzantine State under Justinian I (Justinian the Great)”. The Metropolitan Museum of Art__. 2000–2010. __http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/just/hd_just.htm#slideshow1__
Evaluation:
When asked to take a small multiple choice quiz the next day in class, the students will correctly do so with 80% accuracy.